Some Chemical Compositions and Antioxidant Properties of Local Rice in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand

Saijai Posoongnoen, Theera Thummavongsa

Abstract


Some chemical composition (protein, total fat, carbohydrate, ash, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and amylose) antioxidant properties and energy were studied in 10 local Thai rice cultivars in Nakhon Ratchasima province. Neow Dam 1 had the highest protein (9.12 g/100 g), total fat (3.23 g/100 g) and energy (370.25 kcal/100 g) content. The highest total carbohydrate and ash content were Hommali Dang Doem (78.21 g/100 g) and  Neow Dam Chum Puang (1.51 %), respectively. The gamma-aminobutyric acid content in germinated brown rice ranged from 9.62 to 88.25 mg/100 g DW and the highest content was found in Neow Dam Chum Puang. Amylose content was highest in Huang Tong (31.97%). The phenolics and flavonoids content were 18.86 to 211.16 mg GAE/100 g DW and 18.61 to 123.32 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively. Neow Dam 2 had the highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity, phenolics and flavonoids content among all the rice cultivars. The black and red local rice showed higher antioxidant properties than (p ≤ 0.05) white rice. The results in this study implied that local rice is suitable for promotion as health food and further food product development.

           

Keywords :  local rice, antioxidant properties, nutritional composition, GABA, amylose


Full Text:

PDF

References


Adom, K.K. & Liu, R.H. (2002). Antioxidant activity of grains. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(21), 6182-6187.

Adu-Kwarteng,E., Ellis, W.O., Oduro, I., & Manful, J.T. (2003). Rice grain quality: A comparison of local varieties with new varieties under study in Ghana. Food Control, 14, 507-514.

AOAC. (2012). Official Method of Analysis. 18th edn. Assoc. of Offic. Anal. Chem,: Washington, DC.

Auntin, P., Suriyong, S., & Karladee, D. (2011). Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) in germinated brown rice of upland rice cultivated in the Royal Project. Agricultural Science Journal, 42(3), 412-415. (in Thai)

Bhat, R. & Sridhar, K.R. (2008). Nutritional quality evaluation of electron beam-irradirated lotus (Nelumbo Nuifera) seeds. Food Chemistry, 107(1), 174-184.

Bhattacharjee, P., Singhal, R.S., & Kulkarni, P.R. (2002). Basmati rice: A review. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 37(1), 1-12.

Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M.E. & Berset, C. (1995). Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 28(1), 25-30.

Butsat, S. & Siriamornpun, S. (2010). Antioxidant capacities and phenolic compounds of the husk, bran and endosperm of Thai rice. Food Chemistry, 119(2), 606-613.

Caceres, P.J., Penas, E., Martinez-Villaluenga, C., Amigo, L. & Frias, J. (2017). Enhancement of biologically active compound in germinated brown rice and the effect of sun-drying. Journal of Cereal Science, 73, 1-9.

Chotimarkorn, C., Benjakul, S., & Silalai, N. (2008). Antioxidant components and properties of five long-grained rice bran extracts from commercial available cultivars in Thailand. Food Chemistry, 111(3), 636-641.

Denardin, C.C., Walter, M., da Silva, L.P., Souto, G.D. & Fagundes, C.A.A. (2007). Effect of amylose content of rice varieties on glycemic metabolism and biological responses in rats. Food Chemistry, 105(4),

-1479.

Dykes, L. & Rooney, L.W. (2007). Phenolic compounds in cereal grains and their health benefits. Cereal Food World, 52, 105–111.

Ebuehi, O.A.T. & Oyewole, A.C. (2007). Effect of cooking and soaking on physical characteristics, nutrient composition and sensory evaluation of indigenous rice and foreign rice varieties in Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(8), 1016-1020.

Frei, M., Siddhuraju, P. & Becker, K. (2003). Studies on the in vitro starch degestibility and the glycemic index of six different indigenous rice cultivars from the Plilippines. Food Chemistry, 83(3), 395-402.

Fresco, L. (2005). Rice is life. Journal of food composition and analysis, 18, 249-253.

Goffman, F.D. & Bergman, C.J. (2004). Rice kernel phenolic content and its relationship with antiradical efficiency. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 84(10), 1235-1240.

Gong, E.S., Luo, S.J., Li, T., Liu, C.M., Zang, G.W., Chen, J., Zeng, Z.C., & Liu, R.H. (2017). Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of brown rice varieties. Food Chemistry, 227, 432-443.

Goufo, P. & Trindade, H. (2013). Rice antioxidants: phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid. Food science and nutrition, 2(2), 75-104.

Hu, C., Zawistowski, J., Ling, W., & Kitts, D.D. (2003). Black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) pigmented fraction suppresses both reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in chemical and biological model systems. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 51(18), 5271-5277.

Jia, Z., Tang, M. & Wu, J. (1999). The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxides radicals. Food Chemistry, 64(4), 555-559.

Juliano, B.O. (1985). Criteria and test for rice grain qualities In: Rice chemistry and technology. B.O. Juliano (Ed), 2nd ed, pp. 17–57. Paul, MN: American Association of Cereal Chemists, USA.

Kaosa-ard, T. & Songsermpong, S. (2012). Influence of germination time on the GABA content and physical properties of germinated brown rice. Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry, 5(4), 270-283.

Karladee, D. & Suriyong, S. (2012). γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in different varieties of brown rice during germination. Science Asia, 38, 13-17.

Kennedy, G. & Burlingame, B. (2003). Analysis of food composition data on rice from a plant genetic resources perspective. Food Chemistry, 80(4), 589-596.

Kitaoka, S. & Nakano, Y. (1969). Colorimetric determination of omega-amino acids. Journal of biochemistry, 66(1), 87-94.

Komatsuzaki, N., Tsukahara, K., Toyoshima, H., Suzuki, T., Shimizu, N. & Kimura, T. (2007). Effect of soaking and gaseous treatment on GABA content in germinated brown rice. Journal of Food Engineering, 78(2),

-560.

Liu, R.H. (2004). Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action. The Journal of nutrition, 134, 3479s-3485s.

Liu, R.H. (2007). Whole grain phytochemicals and health. Journal of Cereal Science, 46(3), 207-219.

Lui, L.L., Zhai, H.Q., & Wan, J.M. (2005). Accumulation of γ–aminobutyric acid in giant-embryo rice grain in relation to glutamate decarboxylase activity and its gene expression during water soaking. Cereal Chemistry, 82(2), 191-196.

Moongngarm, A. & Saetung, N. (2010). Comparison of chemical compositions and bioactive compounds of germinated rough rice and brown rice. Food Chemistry, 122(3), 782-788.

Patil, S.B. & Khan, Md.K. (2011). Germinated brown rice as a value added rice product: A review. Journal of Food Science and technology, 48(6), 661-667.

Prasad, V.S.S., Hymavathi, A., Ravindra Babu, V., & longvah, T. (2018). Nutritional composition in relation to glycemic potential of popular Indian rice varieties. Food Chemistry, 238(1), 29-34.

Reddy, C.K., Kimi, L. Haripriya, S., & Kang, N. (2017). Effect of polishing on proximate composition, physicochemical characteristics, Mineral composition and Antioxidant properties of pigmented rice. Rice Science, 24(5), 241-252.

Shen, Y., Jin, L., Xiao, P., Lu, Y., & Bao, J. (2009). Total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity in rice grain and their relations to grain color, size and weight. Journal of Cereal Science, 49(1), 106-111.

Singleton, V.L., Orthofer, R. & Lamuela-Raventos, R.M. (1999). Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin–Ciocalteu reagent. Method in Enzymology, 299, 152-178.

Sompong, S., Siebenhandl-Ehn, S., Linsberger-Martina, E., & Berghofera, E. (2011). Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of red and black rice varieties from Thailand, China and Sri Lanka. Food Chemistry, 124(1), 132-140.

Thomas, R., Wan-Nadiah, W.A. & Bhat, R. (2013). Physiochemical properties, proximate composition, and cooking qualities of locally grown and imported rice varieties marketed in Penang, Malaysia. International Food Research Journal, 20(3), 1345-1351.

Tian, S., Nakamura, K. & Kayahara, H. (2004). Analysis of phenolic compounds in white rice, brown rice, and germinated brown rice. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 52(15), 4808-4813.

Verma, D.K. & Srivastav, P.P. (2017). Proximate composition, mineral content and fatty acids analyses of aromatic and non-aromatic Indian rice. Rice Science, 24(1), 21-31.

Walter, M., Marchesan, E., Massoni, P.F.S., da Silva, L.P., Sartori, G.M.S. & Ferreira, R.B. (2013). Antioxidant properties of rice grains with light brown, red and black pericarp colors and the effect of processing. Food Research International, 50(2), 698-703.

Wichamanee, Y. & Teerarat, I. (2012). Production of germinated Red Jasmine brown rice and its physicochemical properties. International Food Research Journal, 19(4), 1649-1654.

Xheng, X. & Lan, Y. (2007). Effects of drying temperature and moisture content on rice taste quality. Agricultural Engineering International, 49, 1-9.

Zhang, H., Shao, Y., Bao, J., & Beta, T. (2015). Phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of breeding lines between the white and black rice. Food Chemistry, 172, 630-639.

Zhang, M.W., Guo, B.J., Zhang, J.W., Wei, Z.C., Xu, Z.H. et al. (2006). Separation, purification and identification of antioxidant composition in black rice. Agricultural Sciences in China, 5(6), 431-440.

Zhou, Z., Robards, K., Helliwell, S., & Blanchard, C. (2004). The distribution of phenolic acids in rice. Food Chemistry, 87(3), 401-406.

Zhou, Z., Chen, X., Zhang, M. & Blanchard, C. (2014). Phenolics, flavonoids, proanthocyanidin and antioxidant activity of brown rice with different pericarp colors following storage. Journal of Stored Products Research, 59, 120-125.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.